Active-Active Geo-Distributed Redis (CRDB)
In Redis Enterprise, active-active geo-distribution is based on CRDT technology. The Redis Enterprise implementation of CRDT is called Conflict-Free Replicated Database (CRDB). With CRDBs, applications can read and write to the same data set from different geographical locations seamlessly and with latency less than 1 ms, without changing the way the application connects to the database.
CRDBs also provide disaster recovery and accelerated data read-access for geographically distributed users.
Note: CRDBs do not replicate the entire database, only the data. Any database configurations, Lua scripts, etc. are outside the scope of CRDBs.
Managing Conflict-free Replicated Databases (CRDBs)
Multi-Master Replication is configured to run on a per database basis. Furthermore, it utilizes a new type of Redis database called a Conflict-Free Replicated Database (CRDB). There are two types of CRDBs in Redis Enterprise Software (RS), a global CRDB (gCRDB) and a CRDB Instance. There are N+1 CRDB Instances that make up a gCRDB, with each CRDB Instance on a RS cluster.
Before configuring a CRDB, you will need:
- All RS clusters hosting a CRDB must be set up per the standard documentation and configured to utilize FQDNs via DNS for connections to the cluster. CRDBs are not compatible with the Discovery Servicefor inter-cluster communications, but are compatible with local application connections.
- Configure the network so that all nodes in each cluster are able to connect to the Proxy (you can choose which port you want and then set the proxy to run on it when you create the CRDB) and cluster's admin port (9443) on all destination clusters over the network and vice versa.
- If the CRDB spans a WAN, establish a VPN between each of the cluster's networks before setting up a CRDB.
- Confirm that all clusters are on the same version of Redis Enterprise Software.
- Confirm that a network time service is configured and running on each node in all clusters. See Network Time Service.
CRDB Current Limitations
- RS is limited to five Participating Clusters or CRDB Instances per CRDB.
- An existing database cannot be configured to be a CRDB and visa versa. You must create a new CRDB and migrate your existing data.
- CRDBs do not currently interoperate with other modules. You must use only the data types supported by CRDBs.
- Access to CRDBs does not work with IP based connection management via the Discovery Service, it requires the setup and use of FQDNs or mDNS(development only).
- A CRDB on Redis 5 can use Redis on Flash.
- While similar to ReplicaOf, CRDBs are not compatible with that feature. ReplicaOf is a one-way replication, while CRDB utilize multi-master replication.
- OSS cluster API is not supported for use with CRDB.
Network Time Service (NTP or Chrony)
Utilizing a time service like NTP or Chrony is required for CRDBs. It is critical to minimize time drift both intercluster and intracluster for CRDBs on an ongoing basis. There may be times, however rare, that the OS system time is relied upon for conflict resolution between CRDB Instances. The built-in vector clocks tell Redis Enterprise Software the order of operations, or just "don't know" which means for a given object the data operations were concurrent. In rare cases where there is no option to intelligently handle conflicting writes, OS timestamps may be used in resolving the conflict. For example, "string type" may use timestamps to resolve conflicts depending on circumstances.
As part of the Redis Enterprise Software install, there is a procedure that checks if there is a network time service daemon installed, running, and configured to start on boot. When installing Redis Enterprise Software, the installation process will ask if you want to "tune the system". Answer yes to that and you will be prompted if you would like to install/configure a network time service. Answer yes to that as well. The install will appear something like this.
2017-10-30 11:24:07 [?] Do you want to automatically tune the system for best performance [Y/N]? Y 2017-10-30 11:24:15 [?] Cluster nodes must have their system time synchronized. Do you want to set up NTP time synchronization now [Y/N]? Y 2017-10-30 11:24:19 [.] Making sure NTP is installed and time is set.
The installation will install if necessary and set the service to auto-start.
Redis Enterprise Software assumes that networking between the clusters is already configured when you create a CRDB. For security purposes, it is highly recommended that a secure VPN is configured between all clusters that are part of the CRDB. If it is not set up yet, the setup of the CRDB will immediately fail.
The use of DNS and FQDNs (Fully Qualified Domain Names) is required as MMR is not compatible with the Discovery Service for connections. FQDNs must be set up for each cluster per the regular Redis Enterprise Software cluster configuration before a CRDB can be configured.
For initial configuration and ongoing maintenance of a CRDB, each node of every cluster must have access to the Rest API ports of each of the other cluster's nodes.
For synchronization, CRDBs operate over the standard endpoint ports. For example, when you created the CRDB, if you configured its endpoint port number to be 12845, that is the endpoint of the proxy for that CRDB on each cluster and must be opened.
See Network Port Configuration for specifics on what ports should be open for VPNs and Security groups.
After creating CRDB instances on each participating cluster, you can individually set your data persistence configuration. Just like regular Redis Enterprise databases, CRDB data persistence options include AOF (Append-Only File) data persistence and snapshot.
Each node in a cluster containing a CRDB Instance hosts a process called syncer. Its job is to synchronize data from other Instances of the CRDB. It connects to the other cluster's proxy and reads data from that database, brings it back and then writes it to the appropriate master shard of that database.